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Bacteria and bacterial diseases

Bacteria and bacterial diseasesSome of the features are large in size, unicellular, concentric and free. Germs have been around the earth for a long time, more than humans. Germs can thrive in any environment. Such as, deep in the soil, in space, in boiling water, in very cold water, in sulfuric acid etc.

Bacteria and bacterial diseases : Some of the features are large in size, unicellular, concentric and free. Bacteria have been around the earth for a long time, more than humans. Bacteria can thrive in any environment. Such as, deep in the soil, in space, in boiling water, in very cold water, in sulfuric acid etc.
Bacteria and bacterial diseases


1) Typhoid

Bacteria - Salmonella typhi

Dissemination - Contaminated food and water, by house flies

Organs - Inflammation of the intestines

Symptoms - Nausea, headache, diarrhea, loss of appetite, high fever (1040 F), rash on abdomen and chest.

Treatment - Vidal test for diagnosis, chloromacetin as medicine, and TAB vaccine 0.5 ml for vaccination.



2) Tuberculosis

Bacteria - Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Propagation - by spit, by air

Organs - especially the lungs

Symptoms - Severe fever, cough, weight loss, weakness or fatigue, and blood spitting for three weeks or more.

Treatment - X-ray for diagnosis, streptomycin as medicine and B. for vaccination. C. G.


3) Cholera

Bacteria - Vibrio cholerae

Dissemination - Contaminated food and water

Symptoms - Abdominal pain, vomiting, severe diarrhea, dehydration, leg cramps

Treatment - ORS (Oral Rehydration Solution) as medicine and Halfkin vaccine for vaccination


4) Diptheria

Bacteria - Carnibacterium diphtheriae

Propagation - by air

Organs - Respiratory system

Symptoms - Shortness of breath, redness of throat

Treatment - Penicillin as a drug and a double dose for vaccination


5) Whooping cough / Pertusis

Bacteria - Haemophilus pertussis

Propagation - by air

Organs - Respiratory system

Symptoms - severe cough, chest pain

Treatment - Vaccine for vaccination


6) Tetanus

Bacteria - Clostridium titani

Spread - from a wet wound

Organs - Central nervous system

Symptoms - fever, severe pain, toothache

Treatment - Vaccine for vaccination


7) Pneumonia

Bacteria - Diplococcus pneumoniae

Propagation - by air

Organs - Swelling of the lungs

Symptoms - Chest pain, shortness of breath, chills, fever and sweating, and cough (dry or phlegm).

Treatment - the drug penicillin


8) Leprosy

Bacteria - Mycobacterium leprae

Dissemination - blood, fluid droplets

Organs - Peripheral Nervous System

Symptoms - Dry skin, skin rashes, wrinkles, and itchy fingers

Treatment - Dapsone, Quinolones, Rifampicin, Vaccines are not available.


Bacteria i.e. Germs are very microscopic unicellular organisms. As soon as the name of Germs comes, dangerous diseases like TB, typhoid and cholera flash in our mind. But just as not all snakes are venomous, not all Germs are harmful. Germs have a short life span, but because of their rapid reproduction, thousands of new Germs are formed every second to take the place of thousands of dying Germs.

Without Germs, life in the world would not have been possible. The reason for this is that the decomposition of the bodies of millions of living organisms (plants and animals) that die every day all over the world is done by Germs and convert these bodies into simple substances. The gases formed in this way go into the atmosphere and solids and liquids mix in the soil and increase its fertility. It is conceivable that had it not been for these decomposing Germs, the earth would have once been pelted with the bodies of dead organisms and no more life would have been possible on it.

Apart from this, Germs also do many other things of 'philanthropy'. Germs living in knots on the roots of leguminous plants take nitrogen from the air and transport it to the plants.

Animals cannot digest a substance called cellulose found in plant cells on their own. Then how can herbivores survive by eating plants? For this, different animals take the help of different types of Germs. The Germs found in the intestines of termites digest cellulose. If these Germs are killed, the termites will starve to death because their only food is cellulose. Similarly, different types of Germs found in the stomach of ruminants also digest cellulose. It is the Germs that convert milk into curd. Various types of antibiotics are made from Germs, thanks to which millions of patients are treated every day.

The human body is home to billions of Germs. They usually do not cause any disease, provided that harmful Germs do not enter the body in large numbers. In total, there are about one trillion 'good' Germs living inside the human body and on the skin. Some of these are found in the intestine and form essential vitamins for the body. Some Germs help in the digestion of food while others protect the body from harmful Germs.

Recently, scientists associated with 80 institutions studied the Germs found on the human body for five years. Bacterial DNA obtained from the bodies of about 250 healthy individuals was studied. Scientists were surprised to see that there were about a thousand different types of Germs present in each person's body. The funny thing was that each person had a different group of Germs than anyone else. Each person also had pathogenic Germs in their Germs group, but these were living comfortably with other Germs without making that person sick.

Germs are so tiny that it is not possible to see them without a microscope. Leuwenhoek, a Holland resident, first studied germs and other micro-organisms by making a microscope in the seventeenth century. The most important feature of the anatomy of Germs is that they do not have any distinct nucleus. Therefore, they are placed in the group of prokaryotes (nucleus of the early stage). The DNA of other organisms is found in a well-organized nucleus in the form of chromosomes. These are called eukaryotes. Due to the absence of a distinct nucleus in Germs, their DNA is scattered throughout the cytoplasm. Their bodies are covered with a membrane and they take in nutrients from their environment by absorption through this membrane.

According to popular belief, the living beings formed at the time of development of life on earth were very simple anatomy, just like drops of protoplasm. These led to the development of Germs and eukaryotes. But due to the research work done on bacteria in the past, such facts have come to the fore, due to which scientists have been forced to think again about the early nature of life.

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